Environment Fun Day 23 August OP Community Centre and Marmalade Lane – FREE

What’s where….

The Large Hall of the Orchard Park Community Centre, is at Central Avenue, CB4 2EZ. There are parking bays at the Community Centre, or otherwise in residential streets nearby. The Guided Busway stop at Orchard Park West is just a couple of minutes walk away, currently the A and D services are running through Orchard Park (not the usual B due to A14 road works). Marmalade Lane is just a couple of minutes walk away, or can be reached via Orchard Park East busway stop.

We’ll be making the large hedgehog sculpture and most stalls and the picnic will be at The Orchard Community Centre, whilst other activities will be kindly hosted by Marmalade Lane, providing an opportunity for you to see the RIBA East 2019 award winning co-housing development at K1.

1.  THE ORCHARD COMMUNITY CENTRE:

  • Underwater themed BOUNCY CASTLE
  • Making HEDGEHOG SCULPTURE
  • RIVERFORD Organic Farmers
  • LUSH stall and litter pick
  • A TOYS LIFE AND BEYOND toy repair and swap
  • CAMBRIDGE FULL CIRCLE stall
  • WILDLIFE TRUST with Harry Hedgehog
  • Hedgehog Gardens Histon Impington and Orchard Park
  • EDEN PROJECT BIG LUNCH Community Picnic
  • GAMES And PRIZES

2.  MARMALADE LANE:

  • FILMS AND DISPLAYS, Saving The World – Starting At Your Doorstep, The Majestic Plastic Bag – A Mockumentary, and info on litter and litter picks….Plus A14 Action Group

More about what’s on….

Come and have a bounce around on the Underwater themed Bouncy Castle. We’ll be turning it into an artistic statement too, if you’d like to be in the photos 🐠🐟🐬🐳🐋


Join in and help to make a fantastic art piece with, by, and for our community with Environmental and Recycling Artist Anna Roebuck – we’re currently planning a hedgehog sculpture to show the dangers of litter to wildlife….we hope Harry Hedgehog will approve! It’ll have a hedgehog home in it’s base. Please save CLEANED, BROWN, and WHITE plastic to bring along on the day – it will be incorporated into the sculpture. Bottle tops can be brought along separately too for Anna’s other artworks.

Eden Project Communities Big Lunch We’ll be having a picnic outside the Community Centre in the spirit of Eden Project Communities Big Lunch (they don’t just have to be held in July) so bring your lunch and/or something to share with your neighbours 🍕🥗 and of course, if you bring anything in brown or white plastic, please wash it and add it to our hedgehog sculpture 🦔🌎

🍞🥗🧁OPWP and OPCC will be providing some homemade (plastic packaging free) bread, sandwich fillings, cakes, soda and freshly made popcorn for the picnic…. 🍞🥗🧁so we don’t make too much, or too little, if you haven’t let us know you’ll be coming via facebook, please can you indicate in the comments below if you’re planning to join us, thank you 🙏

🍞🥗🧁

A Toys Life and Beyond toy repair and toy swap – if you have a broken toy that you love which requires some TLC, to book your repair please email: atoyslifeandbeyond@gmail.com

detailing:

  • what the toy is
  • what the problem is
  • mention that it’s for the Orchard Park Environment Day 23 August

A Toys Life and Beyond will also be able to take a few drop ins on the day, but please book in advance to avoid disappointment. There’ll be someone from A Toys Life and Beyond there all day, and they’ll actively be doing their repair cafe between 11am-2pm.

Don’t forget to bring along toys in good condition and/or in working order to swap.

We’re also looking for a suitable space that might be able to host a Toy Library if community members would use this? Get in touch if you’re interested or have location ideas.

🧸🚂

Litter Picking with Lush as part of their national clean up campaign, and a pop up Lush shop with their Naked packaging free products. The Orchard Community Centre will smell wonderful 😀

Riverford Organic Farmers will be there – they use minimal packaging and when it is used, the majority is recycled and recyclable. Their fruit and veg is delivered weekly in a reusable box that they collect empty and replace with one full of your goodies. They’ll have some samples and a selection of tasters. Find out more at their stand.

Cambridge Full Circle will have a pop up stall with their ethical and environmentally friendly products with minimal or no packaging.

Harry Hedgehog from the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire will be there with lots of local wildlife information – come along and say hello 🦔

Information/stands from:

Hedgehog Gardens Histon Impington and Orchard Park work to make gardens accessible to hedgehogs

A14 Action Group A group set up in the wake of phase 5 of the A14 upgrade project to bring people together and look at constructive ways to achieve the best possible outcomes across the villages of Histon and Impington (includes Orchard Park). Ask to join the Facebook Group.

This event has been made possible through generous funds provided by Lush, The Community Reach Fund, TK Maxx Team at Neighbourly, and BPHA. We are also grateful to the Orchard Community Centre and residents of Marmalade Lane for hosting the event.

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Wildflower Bank Mini Bioblitz 5 July, after school

Join us at 3.20pm on 5 July for an informal mini Bioblitz of the Wildflower Bank, Ring Fort Rd, CB4 2GR. The event will run for two hours and you’re welcome to join us for as little or long as you like. All equipment will be provided. Children 16 and under must be accompanied by a responsible adult.

Sadly, many people don’t realise what a precious resource the Wildflower Bank is – the UK has lost 97% of its wildflower meadows since WWII and that’s having a negative impact on the insects that rely on it, and in turn the birds and bats that feed on them.

It’s an opportunity to get involved in Citizen Science (see video below), learn about the importance of our local plants and invertebrates, and support Plantlife’s Road Verge Campaign. It’ll be an accessible, free, fun, informative, and family friendly activity – easy to join as you collect children from school.

The Wildflower Bank will be brimming with plants and buzzing with insects in July, and this Citizen Science event is being run as (an informal) bioblitz – where experts and members of the public will try to identify as many of these species as we can in this particular area and in the set time. Members of the public are encouraged to come along to learn, and Cambridge based naturalists are very welcome and encouraged to come along and share their expertise. All plant and invertebrate records from the bioblitz will be provided to the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Environmental Records Centre.

Click here to see all animals and plants we’ve identified at the Wildflower Bank so far

We will also show people how to use the simple key to identify flowers on the sign we had installed at the Wildflower Bank. It shows pictures and flowering times for the different types of flowers found there, some of the insects, and depictions of wildlife drawn by the school children. 

We’re working with Orchard Park Community Council to have our roadside verges managed for wildlife as per Plantlife’s Road Verge Campaign and as per our Habitats Management Plan written for us by the Wildlife Trust BCN. It’s important to monitor the diversity of the flowers. If the diversity is down a lot from last year, we will undertake any necessary remedial measures as a community event.

Thanks so very much to Tim and Carol Inskipp of OPWP for their expertise with identifying all creatures great and small, Lush for the Charity Pot Party last year to fundraise for equipment for these activities, Education Services 2010 for their funding of the sign and tools, Orchard Park Community Council for managing the mowing schedule for wildlife benefit and collaboration with the sign, and last but not least Orchard Park Community Primary School for joining OPWP’s activities.

Click here for information on last year’s mini bioblitz

Springwatch Gardenwatch – Their biggest citizen science project yet…

Photo credit: BBC Two Website

The following information is taken directly from the BBC Two Springwatch Gardenwatch website….. our gardens are tiny in Orchard Park, but if we all did something to help wildlife – even those with a balcony can help – then the total wildlife friendly area would be significant.

As our towns and cities sprawl out into the countryside, our gardens are becoming more and more vital as wildlife reserves of the future. We want to map the resources available for wildlife in gardens up and down the country, and find out which wild visitors they attract.

We also want to find out what our gardens are lacking and how we can improve them for nature. And this is where you at home play the most important role…

This year we’re teaming up with the British Trust for Ornithology and the Open University for our biggest citizen science project ever – Gardenwatch!

Follow the links below to complete each of our four missions and help to build a better future for the UK’s wildlife!

The Gardenwatch Missions

We need your help to map the resources available to wildlife in gardens and other outdoor spaces up and down the country. Take part to help us discover the collective importance of garden habitats for the animals that live alongside us.

Earthworms and other ground-dwelling invertebrates are an essential part of the diet of many birds and mammals. We need your help to count soil invertebrates, so we can work out how abundant this vital food source is in different garden habitats.

Gardens are vital for birds in spring because they provide the resources they need to breed (including food, shelter, water and nesting sites). We need your help to record what birds are doing, so we can find out how they benefit from garden habitats at this critical time of year.

Mammals are often elusive night-time visitors to our gardens. We need your help to find out how much these often under-recorded animals use gardens and to understand which resources are most important for their survival.

Our Gardenwatch Partner Organisations

The British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) is a UK charity that focuses on understanding birds and, in particular, how and why bird populations are changing. Find out more about their brilliant work here.

The Open University, celebrating its 50th birthday throughout 2019, is the leading the way in flexible, innovative teaching and world-leading research. Find our more here.

OP Dawn Chorus birds ID’d and Wing Fluttering Fledgelings

Robin singing Orchard Park

Instead of the 5 minutes as instructed by Cambridge Natural History Society’s citizen science instructions, I’d set my recorder to go for an hour…. Bob Jarman of CNHS was willing to listen to identify the birds he heard, and patiently listened through the hour long recording twice. I found it very relaxing listening to the birds add to the song in the early hours. A shame about the rain, and racing cars, and road noise. After about 15 minutes many more birds join in. You could just be surprised though, you might get an hour of calm if you listen, as Bob did, twice.

Click here for the recording

Thank you very much indeed Bob for identifying them for us. These are the birds he heard:

Robin: 2

Blackbird: 2

Dunnock: 1 briefly towards end

Song Thrush: 1 briefly and distant towards end. 

In last 10+ minutes a knocking I couldn’t identify – could be bird tapping on feeder but don’t think it’s vocal. 

It’s Fledgeling Time Again

Starling adult feeding young

So far I’ve seen young Blue Tits, Great Tits, and Starlings coming to feed.

See these blog posts for more information on their wing fluttering behaviour, what to do if you’ve seen a fledgling you’re concerned about, and what to feed them. Don’t forget to break peanuts up to make them smaller and suitable for young birds before you put them out.

Juvenile Goldfinches

Fledgelings

Saturday’s Litter Pick in and around the Wildlife Area, and OP

Many thanks indeed to the organisers and everyone that came along to help with the Spring Clean of the Wildlife Area, surrounding areas, and OP more widely on Saturday. Even though the weather wasn’t favourable 22 people came along to help. Some from nearby and some from afar. OP Community Council Chair Andrew Chan had registered the event with Niantic, the developers of Pokémon Go, and as a result we were very grateful that two people travelled all the way from London to catch Pokémon in Cambridge, as well as help with our litter pick! Niantic were running an Earth Day Clean Up in association with Playmob (see: http://niantic.playmob.com), after Earth Day on 22 April. Globally there were 14800 people taking part!

Credit: Pokémon Go Twitter Feed

Thanks also to Greater Cambridge Shared Waste Service, a partnership between South Cambridgeshire District and Cambridge City Councils – they provided the pickers and equipment and collected the litter we’d piled up, and to Keep Britain Tidy who’d provided posters and recycled bags to collect litter in.

Andrew had made some delicious cup cakes to thank people for their efforts, and OP Community Council had organised the event and gave tea, biscuits, and chocolates to volunteers.

We estimated that around 100kg of litter was removed from in and around the Wildlife Area, and Orchard Park more widely. It’s a shame we have to do repeated litter picks, and obviously more needs to be done in Orchard Park to make sure the amount of litter is reduced in the first place.

On the whole though, everywhere is looking a bit better than this time last year, when we collected 60+ bin bags of litter.

It’s nice to see the Wildlife Area looking cleaner, though further effort is still needed to ensure the smaller plastic and packaging foam is removed before it’s broken down further or eaten by wildlife. There’s also a big problem with cigarette butts which must be eliminated “discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts…may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues” (Novotny et al 2011). If they’re not washed away in drains to pollute water, then they leak chemicals which poison the soil….

It was great to meet new people, and hear about how you’re helping our local wildlife at home. OPWP also provided information to volunteers about the dangers of litter to wildlife and our environment, and tips to help the wildlife on our doorstep and our local environment. We’ll be in touch with those of you that signed up for OP Wildlife Project emails when we’ve set a date for our next activity.

Thanks so much again all, on behalf of the wildlife of OP 🙂

Reference:

Novotny, T. E., Hardin, S. N., Hovda, L. R., Novotny, D. J., McLean, M. K. & Khan, S., 2011. Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals. Tob. Control. Vol. 20(1).

Help for Hedgehogs coming out of Hibernation

Hedgehog OP Wildlife Area, waking up last year, low weight.
Photo Credit: Andrew Chan
Photo credit: Andrew Chan
Rehabilitated Hedgehog sleeping during soft release into OP Wildlife Area

“Hedgehogs are in serious decline in the UK but putting further obstacles in their way when they wake from the dangers of hibernation is easily avoided with a little knowledge and caring. Please take the time to make your garden more hedgehog and wildlife friendly there is lots of info from  organisations on the internet or check out Pledges for Hedgies page” (source: Willows Hedgehog Rescue).

Late March and April is when Hedgehogs begin to wake from their winter hibernation. The Hedgehog Street website describes hibernation as follows “during hibernation hedgehogs are not really asleep, instead they drop their body temperature to match their surroundings and enter a state of torpor. This allows them to save a lot of energy but slows down all other bodily functions making normal activity impossible.” Further “While in hibernation the hedgehog’s fuel supply comes from the fat stores it has built up over the summer. Eating enough before hibernation is vital and this is when supplementary feeding can prove important to hedgehogs.”

When the hedgehog wakes, it can have used up one third of its body weight – appearing weak, wobbly, and disorientated as a result. It’s vital that hedgehogs can access freshwater as a priority as they wake. Next they need food (see: waking hedgehogs Willows Hedgehog Rescue)

Also in March and April, Hedgehogs are at great risk in the garden, when according to Willows Rescue Centre in Bromsgrove “Hedgehogs are admitted to rescue centres with soft tissue injuries from strimmers and garden forks, factured bones from spades and forks. The injuries are often horrific with operations needed and long periods of rehabilitation. A number of the admissions will be put to sleep straight away due to the extent of the injuries. Sad, when you think that the animal has managed to survive the rigours of winter lowering its metabolism to near death in order to survive only to be seriously injured by human activity.

It is easy to avoid most of these situations.

  • Check before you clear, cut back or carry out work on any shrubs or bushes.
  • Check first before putting a spade or fork into the compost heap.
  • Check under sheds or any structures in the garden before removing them if you are replacing them- hedgehogs like to nest in that gap under garden sheds and patio decking.
  • Check before you mow or strim the grass.

Check with a torch, a gloved hand, your boot or gently with a stick. Gently poking and tapping a hedgehog may slightly annoy it but it will mean that you don’t injure or possibly kill it.”

To make a feeding Station

A feeding station will help stop cats or foxes stealing the Hedgehog’s food the instructions that follow were taken directly from The Hedgehog.

Build  or buy a small feeding station or house to put the food into that will only allow hedgehogs to get in.

This will also help keep the food, especially biscuits dry in the rain and prevents it freezing in the winter.

Put the water OUTSIDE the feeding station. ( In freezing weather put water inside the feeding station)

The quick, cheap and easy way:

  • Get a plastic storage box about 12″ wide by 18″ long (or bigger)
  • Either use it with the lid on, or turn the box upside down. Cut a 4″ to 5″ hole ( about a large fist size) in one of the short ends.
  • Tape around the cut-out hole
  • Hedgehogs can be messy eaters, so put plenty of newspaper on the floor of the box
  • Put the food at the opposite end so a fox or cat cannot put their long arm in and pull out the food
  • Put a brick or heavy weight on top of the box, to stop it being knocked over or the lid pulled off.
  • If cats or foxes still try to get in, then place the box about 6″ away from a wall as shown in the last 3 pictures (with the entrance facing towards the wall)

You should end up with something that looks like this:

Photo credit: The Hedgehog

UK Wildlife Session with the Beavers

Running around in last night’s sunshine to look for hidden wildlife photos
Photo credit: Kathryn Pennell

All photos credit: Kathryn Pennell

Yesterday OPWP ran a session with the Beavers in and around the Community Centre. Many thanks to Holly of OPWP for organising all the resources and running the activities, and to the Beavers and leaders for the session.

Holly began the session by showing photos of a range of British wildlife, including quite a few animals that live in OP and asking for their identities. There were some easy ones, and a few more tricky ones. Then the group moved outside to play Wildlife Bingo, marking off animals as they found the photos Holly had hidden around the Community Centre grounds. Cameras were handed out and the Beavers set off to find and photograph lots of different nature related things, including something beautiful, and something smelly. Back inside we played the ‘Who Am I’ game, but instead of famous people, the Beavers had to guess which animal they were based on clues from the others.

We had fine weather for the session, and they all seemed to enjoy running around outdoors 😀

Thank you to the Beaver group – we look forward to our next session with you.

Session with the School on OP’s Wonderful Wildlife

All photos credit: R. Bridges, Orchard Park Community Primary School

We had a great session with the Butterflies class on 29th March. We began the session in the classroom exploring the different habitats around OP, and looking at our local wildlife that lives in them. This was followed by a game based on musical chairs to explain how habitat loss and fragmentation can affect bats, then ideas on how to help our local wildlife – easy steps everyone can take, but that make a positive difference.

One thing we can all do is to make sure we don’t leave litter lying around – it causes both immediate and long term dangers to our wildlife and the environment, so we were very pleased the children of the Butterflies class were able to do a litter pick along the Wildflower Bank, and land surrounding the Wildlife Area.


THANK YOU BUTTERFLIES 🦋 we enjoyed the session and hope you did too 😀

We’d love to hear from you if you’ve done anything to help our local wildlife since the session 😀 You can Tweet us @opwildlife

Lush Charity Pot Party – Seeds for Bees, Pesticides and Pollinators, Extinction is forEver

Come and say hello to Orchard Park Wildlife Project – we’ll be in Lush on Saturday 23rd March. They’re very kindly holding a Charity Pot fundraising Party 😀 OPWP are very grateful for their support.

We’ll have some organic lavender seeds for you to plant in biodegradable pots to take away to grow which you can plant out in your garden, your window box, or hanging basket in summer….

Many people don’t realise that the majority of commercially grown plants sold at garden centres and supermarkets, including those marketed especially for pollinators, are affected by neonicotinoid pesticides (neonics) (The Bee Cause and Dave Goulson 2017).

“They attack the brain of the insect, causing paralysis and death, and at lower doses interfere with navigation, disease resistance and learning. Just four-billionths of a gram is a lethal dose to a honey bee, meaning one teaspoon of neonics is enough to give a lethal dose to one and a quarter billion bees….Neonics work systemically in plants and can be sprayed onto leaves, watered into the soil, or used as a seed coating.”

Dave Goulson, Professor of Biology at Sussex University

Some neonics have been banned by the EU but they can still be used on ornamental plants grown by commercial growers. Research by the University of Sussex on a range of “pollinator friendly” plants from garden centres and supermarkets shows that there’s “cocktail of pesticides, usually a mixture of fungicides and insecticides” present, 70% contained neonics that are particularly bad for bees (Goulson 2019).

Growing plants from seed, especially organic seed, is considered safer for insects and for wildlife friendly gardens in general, so we’re encouraging people to do just that.

The first global scientific review of the status of the world’s insects has shown they are heading towards extinction, with “dramatic rates of decline that may lead to the extinction of 40% of the world’s insect species over the next few decades” (Sánchez-Bayo and Wyckhuys 2019).

“Bees are just one of many pollinators, that is really important
to emphasize, but they are the most important because of the way that they pollinate. They specifically go out to collect pollen to provide for their young. Without them I feel entire ecosystems would collapse; without pollinators but especially without bees.”

Wildlife Gardener, Brigit Strawbridge (cited in Johnson 2019)

Amongst other main drivers of this global decline in insect populations are: habitat destruction, climate change, and biological factors – however pollution mainly that by synthetic pesticides and fertilisers – is considered to be the second most significant negative factor causing these declines. Insect decline will in turn lead to increased losses of birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish that eat insects…..(Sánchez-Bayo and Wyckhuys 2019)…. which will add to even more extinction further up the food chain.

Although commercial pesticide use needs to be curbed to make a large scale difference, we can all do our bit – think globally and act locally.

For ideas on what to plant see:

 Plant Pots for Pollinators Video from Butterfly Conservation

The best garden flowers for bees by Professor Dave Goulson

References:

Goulson, D., 2019. Pesticides in “Bee-Friendly” flowers. University of Sussex, pp.1–6. Available at: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/lifesci/goulsonlab/blog/bee-friendly-flowers [Accessed March 10, 2019].

Johnson, A. 2019. Bridget Strawbridge. Alice Johnson talks to the Inspiring Gardening for Wildlife Advocate. New Nature, March/April, Issue 24.

The Bee Cause & Goulson, D., 2017. Are “bee-friendly” plants poisoning our bees? Friends of the Earth, pp.1–6. Available at: https://friendsoftheearth.uk/bees/are-beefriendly-plants-poisoning-our-bees [Accessed March 2019].

Sánchez-Bayo, F. & Wyckhuys, K.A.G., 2019. Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers. Biological Conservation, 232, pp.8–27.

Spring 2019

Spring 2019 arrived in November 2018 

The Woodland Trust

From The Woodland Trust website: “The Woodland Trust’s Nature’s Calendar project has received over 64 records of early spring activity that started in November 2018 – including insects that have been spotted active up to 5 months earlier than normal.

Mild weather seems to have temporarily disturbed insects from hibernation. A small tortoiseshell butterfly appeared flying outdoors on Christmas Day in Merthyr Tydfil, and a red tailed bumblebee on Boxing Day in Somerset. The average date for small tortoiseshells is 14 April, and bumblebees 26 March – making both over three months early.…. a red admiral was seen on 17 December in Cambridgeshire; the average emergence date is 7 May, making it nearly five months ahead of schedule”

I saw a butterfly from the bus last week when travelling down Histon Rd but it was too distant to attempt identification.

To see how to get involved in the Woodland Trust’s Citizen Science project as a Nature’s Calendar recordersee our previous blog post – insert url, visit naturescalendar.woodlandtrust.org.uk. Or, to watch time lapse footage of trees throughout the seasons visit their YouTube channel.

So what can we do to help our local wildlife now spring seems to have sprung?

These ideas are from the Wildlife Trust Bedfordshire Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire Newsletter…      

  • Provide some early nectar for the insects:if you have a raised bed, larger style planter, a window box, or hanging basket, you could add snowdrops, crocuses, or winter aconites
  • To help hedgehogs and insects, and frogs and toads if you’re lucky enough to have them in your OP garden: don’t tidy up just yet! These creatures might be hibernating in dried up plant stems, under wood piles or broken plant pots, and some would like to remain undisturbed for a little longer
  • Get ahead for summer insects: and make your garden more colourful. Plant annuals such as Calendula and Nasturtiums, they’re bright and pretty and provide nectar.

Upcoming OPWP activities

Lush are very kindly holding a Charity Pot Party for us on 23 March – do come and say hello – we’ll be planting seeds and letting people know about the importance of choosing British native plants grown from pesticide free seeds to help bees and other insects. Research is showing seeds marketed as good for pollinators might be harming the very creatures you’re trying to help if the seeds you plant have been pre treated with pesticides. It’s best to buy organic seed from specialist suppliers such as: https://beehappyplants.co.uk

We’re organising a Spring Cleaning session in and around the Wildlife Area with OPCC – this will be during the last weekend of March on 30/31 TBC

We’ve got a session with the Beaver group on 5 April, this will be outdoors so we’ve waited for the clocks to go forwards.

We’ll be nest box painting at the end of the school Easter Holidays – check here and on Facebook for dates 27/28 April TBC.

We’re hoping to begin lizard monitoring again for the population off Neal Drive very soon with Cambridge and Peterborough Amphibian and Reptile Group. It’s very likely the lizard’s home will be built on soon, so we’re planning to work with the developer’s ecologists to see how many lizards there are, and to trap and move them to a new site that will be good for them in the longer term. There are a few details to sort out, and we’ve suggested Sunday 7 April TBC for a training day, watch this space. See our 2019 Lizard Monitoring Page for more information.

We’re also planning a workshop with artist Anna Roebuck. She creates beautiful things from recycled materials for early summer – we’re actively fundraising for this. This event will also provide information on the dangers of litter to our local wildlife, and wildlife more widely, as well as ways to reduce your rubbish output, and on better recycling.

Photo credit: Anna Roebuck