Winter can be a very difficult time for wildlife, with plummeting temperatures and scarce food. Find out how you can help OP’s wildlife through this tough period1.
Some species, such as birds and squirrels, don’t hibernate, but struggle to stay alive – using up fat reserves just to stay warm. Other animals and insects hunker down in log and leaf piles, nestle into tree bark, or bury themselves in compost heaps or mud3.
By putting out additional food, gardeners can make a significant contribution to supporting wildlife over winter. It is also a great way to watch wildlife even in the smallest of gardens or balconies, often at very close quarters2.
It is surprisingly easy to do something to help garden wildlife in the lean and cold months of winter. Even if you carry out – or refrain from doing4– just a few of the following tasks, it can make a difference2.
I’m so happy to see this Robin (Erithacus rubecula) that had been suffering with mites (I sought a likely diagnosis and advice from the RSPB), has recovered due to regular feeding in my garden – proof that a little help works. The eye problem is still visible now, and the robin often scratches and shakes with itchiness, but the RSPB said it’s very likely the mites will die off completely in the cold, so that after moulting in Spring, the new feathers will be unaffected.
1. Let your garden go wild1,2
- Leave undisturbed wild areas in your garden – piles of leaves or brushwood can make the perfect nest in which animals can hide, rest and hibernate.
- By leaving the task of tidying your garden borders and shrubs until early spring, shelter can be provided for insects throughout winter.
- Make an insect or bug hotel and put up in a sheltered position. Overwintering ladybirds and lacewings will find this useful.
- Recreate the nooks and crannies insects hibernate in by tying up bamboo and sunflower stems, and leave them in a dry spot in the garden.
- You can also provide late-flying insects with a source of food by soaking a clean sponge in a solution made from an equal mix of sugar and water.
- In late winter, clean out bird boxes so they are ready for new nests in spring.
- Leave healthy herbaceous and hollow-stemmed plants unpruned until early spring. These can provide homes for overwintering insects.
- If you have a compost heap, this will become a welcome habitat for toads, and even grass snakes and slow-worms.
2. Break the ice and provide water1,2
- If your garden pond freezes over, ensure you make a hole in the ice. Toxic gases can build up in the water of a frozen pond, which may kill any fish or frogs that are hibernating at the bottom.
- When you make a hole in the ice, it is very important to do so by carefully placing a pan of hot water on the surface.
- Never break the ice with force or tip boiling water onto the pond, as this can harm or even kill any fish that live in it.
- Provide a shallow dish or container of water at ground level. This will benefit other garden wildlife that needs to drink, as well as birds.
3. Feed the birds1,2,3
- Birds may find it difficult to find natural foods such as berries, insects, seeds, worms and fruit during this cold season. Therefore, any extra food you can put out will help.
- Leave food out for birds regularly and every day when possible, and fill up longer lasting feeders if you’re away.
- Place fat blocks in wire cages. Balls in plastic nets are not recommended as birds such as woodpeckers can get their tongues caught.
- Create your own fat blocks by melting suet into moulds such as coconut shells or logs with holes drilled in.
- Alternate different recipes to entice a range of birds; peanut cakes for starlings, insect cakes for tits and berry cakes for finches.
- Put out finely chopped bacon rind and grated cheese for small birds such as wrens.
- Although fat is important, do also provide a grain mix or nuts to maintain a balanced diet.
- Sparrows, and finches will enjoy prising the seeds out of sunflower heads.
- No-mess mixes are more expensive but the inclusion of de-husked sunflower hearts means there is less waste. Inferior mixes are often padded out with lentils.
- Use wire mesh feeders for peanuts and seed feeders for other seed. Specially designed feeders are needed for the tiny niger seed, loved by goldfinches.
- Feed placed on a wire mesh held just off the ground will entice ground-feeding birds such as robins and dunnocks.
- Thrushes and blackbirds favour fruit. Scatter over-ripe apples, raisins and song-bird mixes on the ground for them.
- Consider planting berrying and fruiting trees and shrubs such as Malus, Cotoneaster and Pyracantha to fill gaps.
Nearly half of all hedgehogs die during their first winter. Many starve, while those born in late-summer are often too small to hibernate, and so are unable to survive the cold weather. In mild winters, hedgehogs are prone to waking up, having been tricked into believing it is spring. They waste valuable fat reserves looking for food.
- Provide shelter bymaking a leaf pile or making a hedgehog house.
- If you don’t think your garden has the requisite hidey-holes, you’ll find custom-built hedgehog houses at arkwildlife.co.uk
- Make a simple hedgehog home – download activity sheet from the Wildlife Trust
- Leave a dish of water and dog or cat food, sunflower seeds, and nutsto help boost their fat reserves, until it’s no longer taken (usually mid- to late-autumn when they enter hibernation). Do not give fish-based food, milk, or bread because they cause diarrhoea and dehydration.
- Check bonfires before lighting them, preferably making it on the day you intend to light it.
- If you find a baby hedgehog, keep it warm in a tall-sided box with hot water bottle on the bottom, covered with a thick towel. Feed with cat or dog food and water and visit britishhedgehogs.org.uk for advice.
- Discover 10 ways to help hedgehogs.
Sources– the above information was taken directly from: